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Saturday, May 28, 2016

Music: Sirfav - I go reach there



This is another dope song from Sirfav he called this one (I go reach there) which he dropped on his birthday yesterday. 27th of May. You've got to listen to it. 
Download the song here: Download

Most Fashionable Male

Nominees For Most Fashionable Male 
  • Remi (400 lvl)
  • Koolblaque (300 lvl)
  • Ahmed (100 lvl)
Cast your votes by writing the following in the comment box below:
your full name as shown on your id card and also your matric number. for example,
Tunji Adu Chike
15/55EK001 
 I want Bolu to be the...............
 The information given by you will be verified before your vote can count.
NB: closing date is on the 30th of May 2016.



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Friday, May 27, 2016

Zly 106 Past Question



                                            MOCK EXAM ZLY106
           1.  Which of the following would you be least likely to find in an herbivore?
a.       a rumen or cecum b. molars c. bacteria in the gut d.canine teeth
                     2.   In the stomach, pepsinogen is converted into: 
               A. pepsin  B. bicarbonate c. HCL  D. glycogen

                    3.   Which of the following substances cannot be absorbed across the wall of the stomach?
a.       alcohol
b.       water
c.       protein fragments
d.       all of these can be absorbed
e.       none of these can be absorbed
4          4.       The unraveling of proteins in preparation for digestion takes place in the        
               a. mouth
               b. esophagus  
                              c.   stomach 
                             d. small intestine 
                               e.     large intestine
5.       What happens when food reaches the stomach?
a.       Nothing. No digestion occurs in the stomach.
b.       The food is completely digested and is absorbed by tiny blood vessels in the walls of the stomach.
c.       The food moves quickly into the small intestine.
d.       Juices mix with the food and stomach muscles squeeze it.
6.       What is the digestive system?
a.       The body's breathing system
b.       The body's system of nerves
c.       The body's food-processing system
d.       The body's blood-transporting system
7.       Which of the following best describes the role of the esophagus in digestion?
a.       Mucus is secreted to protect the esophagus from the stomach enzymes
b.       Serves a minor role in the chemical digestion of fats
c.       Connects the mouth to the stomach and has no function in chemical digestion
d.       Digestive enzymes are secreted as food passes from the esophagus to the stomach
8.       The pancreas is an important auxiliary organ of the digestive system because it ____________.
a.       aids in water balance as food moves through the digestive system
b.       provides several digestive enzymes to the small intestine
c.       secretes bile
d.       provides insulin to the small intestine
9.       What is primary the role of the bacteria found in the large intestine?
a.       digest food and produce vitamins
b.       absorb critical vitamins
c.       cause disease
d.       provide a natural source of protein
10.   Which term describes the wave of muscular contraction that moves material through the GI tract toward the anus?
a.       Peristalsis
b.       pendular motility
c.       segmentation
d.       menstruation
11.       Production of bile is one of several important functions of the
a.       gallbladder
b.       liver
c.       pancreas
d.       small intestine
1          12.     How many canine teeth does an adult human have?
a.       0
b.       2
c.       4
d.       6
e.       8
1          13.       Which of the following statements about digestion is true?
a.       Cellulose is easily digested by most animals.
b.       Most vertebrates can synthesize all the vitamins they need.
c.       It is normal and healthy for vertebrates to have colonies of bacteria living in their digestive tracts.
d.       Digestion occurs in only one chamber or region of the vertebrate digestive system.

     14.     The smallest bone in mammalian body is called
          a        .pubis
          b        . ilium
          c.       radius
          d.       ischium
     15.     the left atrium is separated from left ventricle by
         
a.       Bicuspid valve
b.       Triscuspid valve
c.       Artrioventricular valves


      16.     which of the following is not a component of bile

a.       Bilirubin
b.       Biliverdin
c.       Cholesterol
d.       Phosphate

      17. A ventral process that downward from the projects downward from the mid under surface of the centrum is called a. transverse  b.epiphysis  c .apophysis d. hypophysis
      18. The inner membrane that surrounds the CNS is called a. pia matter b. dura matter       c. arachnoid layer      d.  Arachnoid membrane
      19. The axon is covered by myelin sheath and the myelin sheath is surrounded by a. Dendron b. dendrite c. neurelemma
      20. The vertebrae that situated at the tail region is called a. cervical b .thoracic c. caudal d .sacral 
                                                                     
Collated by Faraday. (Faraday Cares)

Plb 108 Past Question



PLB 108

1.      The spermatophytes are also known as ________________________
(a)     phanerogams     (b) embryophytes     (c)  land plants   (d)  flowering plants
2.      Seed-bearing plants are __________________________
          (a)     gymnosperms and pteridophytes
          (b)     angiosperms and bryophtes
          (c)     gymnosperms and angiosperms
          (d)     thallophytes and angiosperms
3.      Angiospermopsia are the _________________________
          (a)     flowerless plants
          (b)     flowering plants
          (c)     seedless plants
          (d)     vessel plants
4.      The following genera are members of the division Gnetopsida except_________
          (a)     Ephedra     (b) Cycas   (c)     Gnetum      (d)   Welwitschia
5.      A plant that produced microspores and megaspores is known as______________
(a)     Heterosporous    (b)  homosporous   (c)  homogenous  (d)  heteropgeneous
6.      Land plants are also known as __________________________
          (a)  spermatophyte   (b)  magnoliopsida   (c)  embryophyta  (d)  Ginkgopsida

7.      The following plant groups are divisions of gymnosperms except_____________
          (a)  Gnetopsida   (b)  Magnoliopsida   (c)  Pinopsida   (d)  Ginkgopsida
8.      __________________ are the first group of plants with edndosperm.
          (a)  angiosperms    (b)  gymnosperms   (c)  pteridophytes   (d)  bryophytes.
9.      Double fertilizations in angiosperms produced______________________
          (a)  cotyledon and endosperm
          (b)  zygote and endosperm
          (c)   embryo and endosperm
          (d)  seed and fruit.
10.    Gymnosperms’ body form include____________________
          (a)  herb and shrub   (b)  tree and herb  (c)  herb and twig  (d)  shrub and tree
11.    A vascular plant especially an angiosperm is basically an axis consisting of________________
(a)  root and leaf   (b)  shoot and root   (c)  shoot and branch  (d)  flower and stem
12.    Flowers are distinguished from the ordinary shoot of the same plant by being
          _______________________ in growth.
          (a)  indeterminate  (b)  unstoppable  (c)  determinate  (d)  None of the above
13.    The pistil of a flower consists of _________________________
          (a)  stigma, style and ovary  (b)  receptatle, style and stigma
          (c)  Ovary, flower stalk and style   (d)  petal, septal and ovary
14.    Petals are collectively called_______________________ while sepals are known as____________________       
(a)  calyx, corolla  (b)  corolla, calyx   (c)  carpel, stamen  (d)  pistil, androecium
15.    Seeds in conifers lie on the surface of specialized leaves called_______________
          In structures called_____________________.
(a)  scales, cones  (b)  cones, scales   (c)  cones, ovuliferous scales  (d)  ovuliferous     scales, cones
16.    Lateral roots develop from pericycle thus they are__________________ in origin.
          (a)  ontogenous   (b)  endogenous  (c)  ectogenous   (d)  superficial     



17.    ___________________,    ________________  and ___________________ are
          the three types of apigments present in gymnosperms.
(a) carotenoids, chlorophylls and leucoplasts
(b)Elioplasts, amyloplasts, chlorophylls
(c) Carotenoids, chlorophyll A, chlorophyll B
(d)Chromoplasts, chlorophyll A, chlorophyll B.
18.    Pinopsida is otherwise known as ___________________________
          (a)  Ginkgopsida  (b)  Coniferopsida,  (c)  Gnetopsida   (d)  Cycadopsida
19.    Dioecious plants are plants with_____________________
          (a)  separate male and female flowers
          (b)  separate male and female plants
          (c)  separate sepals and petals
          (d)  separate microspores and megaspores
20.    _________________ is the persisting body in spermatophytes.
          (a)  Gametophyte    (b)  Pteriodphyte   (c)  sporophyte   (d)  Bryophyte
21.    The flowering plant is a division of spermatophyte known as________________
(a)  Magnoliopsida   (b)  Gymnospermopsida   (c)  Cycadopsida
            (d)  Gnetopsida
22.    The only species of Ginkgos is __________________________
(a)  Ginkgo beloba     (b)  Ginkgo biloba   (c)  Ginkgo balba   (d)  Ginkgo bilobi
23.    Pollination in gymnosperms is by ___________________
          (a)  birds   (b)  animals   (c)  wind   (d)  water
24.    Male Ginkgos are planted because the females have __________________
          (a)  poor growth   (b)  dull cones  (c)  nasty odour   (d)  too long leaves
25.    Which of these is not true of algae?
          (a)  They are thalloid    (b)  They contain chlorophyll  
          (c)  They  contain vascular tissues
          (d)  They are lower plants
26.    The study of algae is known as
          (a)  Algology or Phycology   (b)  Mycology or Physiology
          (c)  Anatomy or histology      (d) Pathology of Phycobiont
27.    Algae can exist in all these forms except
          (a)  Unicellular   (b)  Colonial   (c)  Multicellular  (d)  None of the above
28.    An anchorage device Present in algae is know as
          (a)  Root    (b)   Rhizinae   (c)  Rhizoids   (d)  Rhizophere
29.    Paramylum is a polysaccharide found in algae related to
          (a)  glucose   (b)  starch    (c)  cellulose    (d)  Glycogen
30.    Chrysolaminarin is a complex carbohydrate found in a group of
          (a)  Green algae  (b)  Brown algae  (c)  Blue green algae   (d)  Red algae.
31.    All these are examples of flagellate unicells except
          (a)  Dunaliella   (b)  Phacotus   (c)  Chlamydomonas  (d)  Tetragnium
32.    Gonium is a type of algae with
(a)  Plate-like colony   (b)  Spherical shape   (c)  Plates of cells  (d)  None of the above.
33.    The fungal component of a lichen is best described as
          (a)  Phycobiont   (b)  Mycobiont   (c)  fungi   (d)  Algae
34.    A group of lichen without an organized structure is known as
          (a)  Foliose    (b)  Leprose   (c)  fructicose   (d)  crustose
35.    A type of lichen structure which is much branched and can either be upright or hanging down is known as
          (a)  crustose    (b)   foliose   (c)  fruticose   (d)  Lepros
36.    The study of fungi is termed
          (a)  funcology      (b)  ecology     (c)  mycology    (d)  phycology
37.    Fungi are classified into how many classes?
          (a)  8    (b)   3    (c)   6     (d)   4
38.    A fungus comprising a naked slimy mass of protoplasm containing numerous nuclei is better called
          (a)  spore mass   (b)  mycelium   (c)  plasmodium   (d)  amoeboid 

39.    When a fungal mycelium is sparated into individual cells by cross walls, the fungus is said to be
          (a)  aseptate    (b)  septate    (c)  cross walled    (d)  coenocytic
40.    The dimensions of a fungal mycelium are not fixed and may be affected by
          (a)  temperature   (b)  nutrients   (c)  aeration   (d)  none of the above
41.    Specialized propagative bodies made up of one or a few cells are called
          (a)  spores    (b)  ciliospores   (c)  asci   (d)  pycnidia
42.    When terminal or intercalary cells cut off and round up, they form
          (a)  hectospores   (b)  teliospores   (c)  chlamydospores  (d) aneurospores
43.    Flagellatd spores are also called
          (a)  sporangia   (b)  zoospores   (c)  phialides    (d)  None
44.    Asexual spores produced by the cutting off of cells from special hypha are called
          (a)  conidiospores   (b)  conidia   (c)  idiospores   (d)  spermatia
45.    In the class Ascomycetes the ascospores are usually produced in what number?
          (a)  4   (b)  6   (c)  8   (d)  10
46.    In the class Basidiomycetes, the spores are called ________________ and
          Are usually____________________ in number?
          (a)  basidium; 8   (b)  biospores;  4   (c)  phycospores; 4  (d)  basidiospors; 4
47.    A dikaryotic cell is most likely to have how many nuclei?
          (a)  3    (b)   2   (c)   4    (d)  numerous
48.    Fungi generally lack chlorophyll and are therefore
          (a)  autotrophs   (b)  scarengers   (c)  heterotrophs   (d)  idiotrophs
49.    The fungi imperfecti group is so called because
          (a)  members are deformed  (b)  members are unrelated  (c)  members lack sexuality  (d)  members die out
50.    Mushrooms and toadstools are differentiated based on
          (a)  classification   (b)  habitat   (c)  edibility   (d)  life cycle
51.    Between Amanita and Agaricus species the difference lies in the presence of
          ________________ in which of them?
          (a)  stipe in Amanita   (b)  volva in Agaricus  (c)  volva in Amanita
          (d)  annulus in Agaricus
52.    In mushrooms, the fruiting body growing upward above ground is called
          (a)  basidium   (b)  ascocarp   (c)  basidiocarp  (d)  fertile body
53.    All members of the Kingdom fungi reproduce both sexually and asexually
          (a)  True   (b)  false   (c)  True and False   (d)  None
54.    Most mushrooms are basidiomycetes that produce haploid basidiospores in sacs under the mushroom cap       (a)  True    (b)  False
55.    Asci in Ascomycetes and basidiospores in Basidiomycetes perform the same function   (a)  True  (b)  False   (c) None of the above  (d) all of the above
56.    Conidia are reproductive cells that function during the asexual life cycles of Ascomycetes and imperfect fungi
          (a)  True   (b)  False   (c)  True and False   (d)  None of the above
57.    Basidiospores are _____________________ cells that germinate to directly form
          _______________.
          (a)  haploid; mycelia  (b)  haploid; asci   (c)  diploid; basidia   (d)  diploid; mushrooms
58.    Asexual life cycle in fungi is likely to be completed
          (a)  once a season   (b)  twice in a season   (c)  several times  (d) none of the above
59.    When two fertilized nuclei remain together in pairs within the cell without actually fusing the cell is called
          (a)  a eucaryon   (b)  a dikaryon   (c)  germtube   (d) zygote
60.    The role of fungi in mycorrhizal association is to
          (a)  produce necessary nutrient   (b)  increase absorptive surface for plant roots
          (c)  decompose    (d)  synthesize antibiotics
61.              The first person to observe microorganisms with a simple
           microscope is
(a)Robert Hook
(b)            Antony van Leeuwenhoek
(c)Robert Einsten
(d)            John Newton
  62.    The theory of Abiogenesis believes that
(a)Life starts from non-living thing
(b)            Life starts from air
(c)Life starts from food
(d)            There is no life at all
  63.    The theory of Abiogenesis was disproved by an experiment   
performed by -------------
(a)Antony van Leeuwenhoek
(b)            Robert Hook
(c)Louis Pasteur
(d)            John Newton
64.     The following constitute bacteria morphology except
(a)The size
(b)            The shape
(c)The arrangement
(d)            None of the above
65.     The following structural parts are common to all bacteria except;
(a)Flagella
(b)            Pili
(c)Cell wall
(d)            A & b
66.     Which of the following is incorrect?
(a)The pili of bacteria can be observed by using light microscope
(b)            The presence of flagella in bacteria can be deduced from motility test
(c)Motility test cannot be used to deduce the presence of pili
(d)            Both a & b are incorrect
67.      Protoplasm refers to;
(a)Bacterium that has lost its cell wall
(b)            Bacterium that has lost its plasma membrane
(c)Bacterium that has lost its flagella
(d)            Bacterium that has lost its pili
68.      All these are arrangements of flagella in bacteria except
(a)Monotrichous
(b)            Polytrichous
(c)Lophotrichous
(d)            Amphitrichous
69.     Which of the following is/are correct?
(a)Pili are straighter and thinner than flagella
(b)            Flagella are shorter and thinner than pili
(c)Pili is a locomotory organelle
(d)             a, b and c are correct
70.     Pili can be used for the following except;
(a)Conjugation
(b)            Adherence to surfaces
(c)Motility
(d)            Attachment to specific receptors on cell surface

71.     Which of the following is not true for bacteria capsule?
(a)They are jelly-like substances
(b)            They are found on the surface of bacteria
(c)They help bacteria to cause disease
(d)            They are found in all bacteria
72.      The following are true about bacteria size except
(a)The unit of measurement of bacteria size is milimeter
(b)            The unit of measurement of bacteria size is the nanometer
(c)Bacteria vary in size
(d)            Bacteria are the same in size
73.      Acid-fast bacteria are stained using
(a)Gram staining technique
(b)            Spore staining technique
(c)Ziehl-Neelsen staining technique
(d)            Capsular staining technique
  74.     Bacteria that appear in clusters are known as
(a)Diplococci
(b)            Streptococci
(c)Streptobacilli
(d)            Staphylococci
75.      Which of the following is/are true of viruses?
(a)They are obligate intracellular parasites
(b)            They posses both DNA and RNA
(c)They can only replicate outside a living cell
(d)            a, b and c are correct
76.      The nucleic acid plus capsid of a virion is known as;
(a)Nucleocapsid
(b)            Nucleoid
(c)Genome
(d)            Capsomer
77.      The capsomers are attached to one another by --------------- bonds
(a)Dative
(b)            Non-covalent
(c)Hydrogen
(d)            Electrovalent
78.      Viruses acquire their envelope as
(a)They infect a host cell
(b)            They replicate inside a cell
(c)They bud through the host cell membrane
(d)            They synthesize the different proteins
79.      The envelope of viruses is made up of
(a)Lipids and vitamins
(b)            Proteins and minerals
(c)Vitamins and minerals
(d)            Lipids and proteins




80.     Measles virus is an example of
(a)An enveloped icosahedral virus
(b)            An enveloped helical virion
(c)Non-enveloped icosahedral virus
(d)            Complex virus

ANSWERS

1
a
41
a
2
c
42
c
3
b
43
b
4
b
44
b
5
a
45
c
6
c
46
d
7
b
47
b
8
b
48
c
9
c
49
c
10
d
50
c
11
b
51
c
12
c
52
c
13
a
53
b
14
b
54
A
15
d
55
B
16
b
56
A
17
c
57
B
18
b
58
C
19
b
59
B
20
c
60
B
21
a
61
B
22
b
62
A
23
c
63
C
24
c
64
D
25
c
65
D
26
a
66
A
27
d
67
A
28
c
68
B
29
b
69
A
30
b
70
C
31
d
71
D
32
a
72
C
33
b
73
C
34
b
74
D
35
c
75
A
36
c
76
A
37
d
77
B
38
c
78
C
39
b
79
D
40
b
80
B
SECTION B:        EXAMINATION     TIME ALLOWED:   40 Minutes
1.      Bryophytes are mesoscopic because they are better explored with
          (a)  naked eyes   (b)  hand lens  (c)  microscope   (d)  dissecting scope
2.      __________________  are radially dissected, dichotomously branched and dorsiventrally differentiated 
          (a)  Hornworts and Mosses   (b)  Hepaticae and Liverwort  (c)  Honworts and Hepaticae  (d)  Hepaticae and Mosses
3.      Carpocephala is a characteristic of
(a)  Hornworts  (b)  Hepaticae  (c)  Mosses   (d)  Seedless plants
4.      The presence of choroplasts with pyrenoid is a feature of 
 (a)  Musei  (b)  Hepaticae  (c)  Hornworts   (d)  ferns
5.      Which of these is not a dispersal structure in bryophytes? 
(a)  Peristome teeth  (b)  Calyptra   (c) Pseudo elaters  (d)  Elaters
6.      Which of these is not part of the sporophyte of mosses? 
(a) Seta  (b)  Columella (c)  Foot  (d)  Capsule
7.      Bryophytes do grow as
          (a)  thalloid, acrocarpous and pleurocarpous only
          (b)  thalloid, and acrocarpous only
          (c)  Pleurocarpous, and thalloid only
          (d)  Acrocarpous,and pleurocarpous only
8.      Poikilohydric means ability to  
(a)  change body temperature with the environment   (b)  maintain water content in the environment (c)  adjust water needs with the environment  (d)  maintain temperature of the environment
9.      Spores are formed in the capsule by
(a) mitosis  (b) meiosis  (c) karyokinesis (d)  cytokinesis
10.    The gametophyte is dominant
 (a)  bryophytes  (b)  ferns   (c) gymrosperm  (d)  all plants
11.    A generation that is sex bearing, haploid and independent in bryophytes is
          (a)  sporophyte  (b)  gametophyte  (c)  gametophore  (d)  syngamy
12.    ______________ exhibits indefinite sporophyte growth
          (a)  Liverworts  (b)  Mosses  (c)  Hornworts   (d)  Fern
13.    Bryophytes are made up of
          (a)  Marchantiophyta, Pterophyta, Hepaticophyta
          (b)  Hepaticophyta, Anthocerotophyta, Bryophyta
          (c) Bryophyta, Marchantiophyta, Thallophyta
          (d)  Marchantiophyta, Bryophytes, Bryophyta
14.    Bryophytes originated from 
(a)  Oscillatoria  (b)  Ulothrix  (c) Spirogyra   (d)  Euglena
15.    Bryophytes does not require___________________ for effective fertilization
          (a)  Water   (b)  Antherozoids  (c)  temperature  (d)  Archeqonia
16.    The part of the sporophyte of mosses that is associated with water conduction is
          (a)  rhizoid  (b)  foot  (c)  seta  (d)  stem
17.    Which of this is not an asexual reproductive body in plants?
          (a)  Gemmae  (b)  Persistent protonema  (c)  Leaves  (d)  soredia
18.    A plant that is 2 ranked with lobed leaves is likely to be a
          (a)  moss   (b)  Liverwort   (c)  hornwort  (d)  fern
19.    Which of the following best described the sporophyte of bryophytes?  It is
          (a)  dominant   (b)  a sex bearing generation  (c)  independent
 (d) partially parasitic
20.    The transition structure between the propagules and gametophore in mosses is
          (a)  life cycle   (b)  life span   (c)  protonema  (d)  Operculum
21.    The collection of fertile leaves is  (a)  sporophylls   (b)  strobillus
          (c)  megaphyll   (d)  microphyll
22.    The superiority of pteridophytes over bryophytes can be hinged on its
          (a)  diploid nature  (b)  larger size  (c)  differentiation
          (d)  different gametophyte and sporophyte
23.    The act of an producing different types of spores by ferns is
          (a)  anisophyll  (b)  heterophyll  (c)  anisosporous  (d) heterosporous
24.    The unique feature of the pteridophytes that differentiate them from other plants is
          (a)  ability to grow in water and on land
          (b)  independency of the two generations
          (c) cuticularisation of the body  (d)  differentiation of body
25.    Anisophyll is a feature of   (a)  Lycopodium  (b)  Osmunda  (c) Selaginella
          (d)  Platycerium
26.    Tongue-like ligule is a feature of
          (a)  Lycopodium   (b)  Selaginella  (c) Platycerium  (d)  Osmunda
27.    The royal ferns are  (a)  Azolla   (b)  Salvinia   (c)  Osmunda  (d)  Lycopodium
28.    Pteridophytes that grow in water are  (a)  Salvinia, Azolla,  Osmunda
          (b)  Azolla, Marselia,  Salvinia  (c)  Osmunda, Azolla, Lycopodium
          (d)  Azolla, Salvinia, Calymperes
29.    Dimorphism is a feature of   (a)  Lycopodium  (b)  Platycerium  (c)  Osmunda
          (d)  Selaginella
30.    Which of these structures is not spore related?
          (a)  Sporangium  (b)  sporocarp  (c)  capsule  (d)  prothallus
31.    Which of these is not a sub-group of Brown algae?
          (a)  Chrysophyta  (b)  Pyrophyta  (c)  Phaecophyta  (d)  Euglenophyta
32.    A slimy cover found in some colonial organization of some algae is known as
          (a)  mucilage  (b)  chitin  (c)  cellwall  (d)  cuticle
33.    In red algae, food is stored as  (a)  floridean  (b)  Manitol
          (c)  fucoxanthin  (d)  fat
34.    All these are examples of non motile Rhizopodial unicells in algae except
          (a)  Chrysophyceae  (b)  Rhyzolkane  (c)  Heliactis  (d)  Tetragonium
35.    Which of these is not a Protoccoicodal non-motile algae
 (a)  Chlorella   (b)  Synechoccus  (c)  Tetragoniun  (d)  Heliactis
36.    A blue pigment capable of masking Chlorophyll in blue-green algae is known as
          (a)  phycocyanin  (b)  fucoxanthin   (c)  cytochrome   (d)  Manitol
37.    The body of an alga is said to be thalloid because it is not made up of
          (a)  leaves  (b) stem  (c)  root  (d)  all of the above
38.    Manitol is one of the food materials stored by Phaeophyta and is described as
          (a)  complex alcohol  (b)  a lipid   (c)  protein   (d)  None of the above
39.    An algal form that contains organized and delimited nuclei is best described as
          (a)  eukaryotic   (b)  prokaryotic  (c)  acellular  (d)  colonial
40.    Which of these is not a means of colonial formation in algae
          (a)  aggregation of products of cell division
          (b)  attachment of cells after division   (c)  aggregation of motile cells
          (d)  none of the above
41.    Which of the following non flagellates has its cells fused as plates
          (a)  Pediastrum  (b)  hydrodyctyon  (c)  Coelastrum  (d)  None of the above
42.    An example of plate- like flagellate colony is (a)  Gonium  (b)  Pandorina 
          (c)  Volvox  (d)  None of the above
43.    Ulothrix is an example of filamentous algae
          (a)  with cross walls  (b)  without cross walls (c) without cell wall  (d)  with vesicle
44.    Botrydium is an alga belonging to one of  the following morphological organizations
(a)  Unicells   (b)  Colonial  (c)  Filamentous  (d)  Siphonaceous
45.    The algal component of lichens is known as
(a)  phycobiont (b) mycobiont (c)  algology  (d)  mycology
46.    The major function of fungal component of lichens is
          (a)  food production   (b)  attachment  (c) reproduction  (d)  none of the above
47.    Which of these is not a likely habitat for lichens
          (a)  tree trunk   (b)  Logs of wood   (c)  rocks  (d)  None of the above
48.    Lichens can exhibit any of the following colours except
          (a)  Orange  (b)  brown  (c)  red   (d)  None of the above
49.    The main contributions of algal component of lichens is
          (a)  food production  (b)  respiration  (c)  transpiration  (d)  resproduction
50.    Life cycle in fungi refers to  (a)  spore production  (b)  reproduction
          (c)  developmental stages  (d)  root of origin
51.    Which fungal class would you regard as the most primitive?
          (a)  Deuteromycetes  (b)  Fungi Imperfecti (c)  Phycomycetes  (d)  Ascomycetes
52.    Which of these statemtns is true about fungi? They generally
          (a)  lack sexual stages  (b)  lack pigmentation
          (c)  lack chlorophyll  (d) lack definite cell wall
53.    Penicillium and Rhizopus species can be distinguished by the
          (a)  Presence of septa in Penicillium sp.  (b)  presence of rhizoids in Rhizopus sp.
          (c)  presence of stolon is Rhizopus sp.  (d) all of the above
54.    In which structures(s) does genetic recombination occur?
          (a)  basidia  (b)  ascus  (c)  conidia  (d) a and b, but not c (e) a, b, and c
55.    The first person to observe microorganisms with a simple microscope is
(a) Robert Hook  (b) Antony van Leeuwenhoek  (c) Robert Einsten (d) John Newton
56.    The theory of Abiogenesis believes that
(a)Life starts from non-living thing  (b)Life starts from air (c) Life starts from food
(d) There is no life at all
57.    The theory of Abiogenesis was disproved by an experiment performed by -------------
(a)Antony van Leeuwenhoek (b) Robert Hook (c) Louis Pasteur (d) John Newton
58.    The following constitute bacteria morphology except
(a)The size (b) The shape (c) The arrangement (d) None of the above
59.    The following structural parts are common to all bacteria except;
(a)Flagella (b) Pili  (c) Cell wall  (d) A & b
60.    Which of the following is incorrect?
(a)The pili of bacteria can be observed by using light microscope
(b)            The presence of flagella in bacteria can be deduced from motility test
(c)Motility test cannot be used to deduce the presence of pili
(d)            Both a & b are incorrect
61.    Protoplasm refers to;
(a)Bacterium that has lost its cell wall  (b) Bacterium that has lost its plasma membrane
(c) Bacterium that has lost its flagella   (d) Bacterium that has lost its pili
62.    All these are arrangements of flagella in bacteria except
(a)Monotrichous  (b) Polytrichous  (c) Lophotrichous  (d) Amphitrichous
63.    Which of the following is/are correct?
(a)Pili are straighter and thinner than flagella  (b) Flagella are shorter and thinner than pili
(c) Pili is a locomotory organelle  (d)  a, b and c are correct
64.    Pili can be used for the following except;
(a)Conjugation  (b) Adherence to surfaces  (c) Motility
(d) Attachment to specific receptors on cell surface
65.    Which of the following is not true for bacteria capsule?
(a)They are jelly-like substances   (b) They are found on the surface of bacteria
(c)They help bacteria to cause disease  (d) They are found in all bacteria
66.    The following are true about bacteria size except
(a)The unit of measurement of bacteria size is milimeter
(b)            The unit of measurement of bacteria size is the nanometer
(c)Bacteria vary in size  (d) Bacteria are the same in size


67.    Acid-fast bacteria are stained using
(a)Gram staining technique  (b) Spore staining technique 
(c) Ziehl-Neelsen staining technique  (d) Capsular staining technique
68.    Bacteria that appear in clusters are known as
(a)Diplococci  (b) Streptococci  (c) Streptobacilli  (d) Staphylococci
69.    Which of the following is/are true of viruses?
(a)They are obligate intracellular parasites      (b) They posses both DNA and RNA
(c) They can only replicate outside a living cell  (d) a, b and c are correct
70.    The nucleic acid plus capsid of a virion is known as;
(a)Nucleocapsid  (b) Nucleoid  (c) Genome  (d) Capsomer
71.    The capsomers are attached to one another by --------------- bonds
(a)Dative  (b) Non-covalent  (c) Hydrogen  (d) Electrovalent
72.    Viruses acquire their envelope as
(a)They infect a host cell   (b) They replicate inside a cell
(a)They bud through the host cell membrane  (d) They synthesize the different proteins
73.    The envelope of viruses is made up of
(a)Lipids and vitamins  (b) Proteins and minerals (c) Vitamins and minerals
(d) Lipids and proteins
74.    Measles virus is an example of
(a)An enveloped icosahedral virus   (b) An enveloped helical virion
(c) Non-enveloped icosahedral virus  (d) Complex virus
75.    Which of the following can be infected by a virus?
(a)Plants  (b) Animals (c) Bacteria  (d) All of the above
76.    The following are animal viruses except
(a)New Castle disease virus (b) Rinderpest virus (c) Tobacco mosaic virus (d) All of the above
77.    The unit of measurement of bacteria size is
(a)Nanometre   (b) Micrometer   (c) Meter   (d) Millimetre
78.    The following can be used to measure virus size except
(a)Electron microscope  (b) Membrane filters  (c) Sedimentation rate in a suspending fluid
(d)Light microscope
79.    Viruses multiply by
(a)Conjugation   (b) Binary fission   (c) Fusion   (d) Replication
80.    The following are non-essential parts of virus except
(a)Capsid   (b) Envelope  (c) Spikes  (d) Capsomers
81.    The capsid of viruses is composed of
(a)Spikes  (b) Nucleic acid  (c) Capsomers  (d) Nucleocapsid
82.    The following are used in virus classification except
(a)Gram reaction  (b) Biochemical properties  (c) Morphological properties
(d) Serological properties
83.    Polio virus belongs to family of viruses called
(a)Paramyxoviridae  (b) Enterovirus (c) Picornaviridae  (d) Lentivirinae
84.    One nanometer is equal to
(a)10-10m    (b)10-9m    (c) 10-8m   (d) 10-7m
85.    The spermatophytes are also known as ________________________
(a)     phanerogams     (b) embryophytes     (c)  land plants   (d)  flowering plants
86.    Seed-bearing plants are __________________________
          (a)     gymnosperms and pteridophytes  (b)     angiosperms and bryophtes
          (c)     gymnosperms and angiosperms    (d)     thallophytes and angiosperms

87.    Angiospermopsia are the _________________________
          (a)  flowerless plants  (b)  flowering plants  (c)  seedless plants (d) vessel plants
88.    The following genera are members of the division Gnetopsida  except_________
          (a)     Ephedra     (b) Cycas   (c)     Gnetum      (d)   Welwitschia
89.    A plant that produced microspores and megaspores is known as______________
(a)   Heterosporous    (b)  homosporous   (c)  homogenous  (d)  heteropgeneous
90.    Land plants are also known as __________________________
          (a)  spermatophyte   (b)  magnoliopsida   (c)  embryophyta  (d)  Ginkgopsida
91.    The following plant groups are divisions of gymnosperms except_____________
          (a)  Gnetopsida   (b)  Magnoliopsida   (c)  Pinopsida   (d)  Ginkgopsida
92.    __________________ are the first group of plants with edndosperm.
          (a)  angiosperms    (b)  gymnosperms   (c)  pteridophytes   (d)  bryophytes.
93.    Double fertilizations in angiosperms produced______________________
(a) cotyledon and endosperm   (b) zygote and endosperm  (c) embryo and endosperm   (d) seed and fruit.
94.    Gymnosperms’ body form include____________________
          (a)  herb and shrub   (b)  tree and herb  (c)  herb and twig  (d)  shrub and tree
95.    A vascular plant especially an angiosperm is basically an axis consisting of___________
(a)  root and leaf   (b)  shoot and root   (c)  shoot and branch  (d)  flower and stem 
96.    Flowers are distinguished from the ordinary shoot of the same plant by being ____________in growth.
          (a)  indeterminate  (b)  unstoppable  (c)  determinate  (d)  None of the above 
97.    The pistil of a flower consists of _________________________
(a)  stigma, style and ovary  (b)  receptatle, style and stigma  
(c)  Ovary, flower stalk and style   (d)  petal, septal and ovary 
98.    Petals are collectively called_____________ while sepals are known as_________________
(a)  calyx, corolla    (b)  corolla, calyx   (c)  carpel, stamen  (d)  pistil, androecium 
99.    Seeds in conifers lie on the surface of specialized leaves called_________________in structures called_____________________.
(a)  scales, cones  (b)  cones, scales   (c)  cones, ovuliferous scales  (d)  ovuliferous scales, cones 
100.  Lateral roots develop from pericycle thus they are__________________ in origin. 
a)  ontogenous   (b)  endogenous  (c)  ectogenous   (d)  superficial  
101.  ___________________,    ________________  and ________________ are the three types of
 apigments present in gymnosperms. 
(a) carotenoids, chlorophylls and leucoplasts  (b) Elioplasts, amyloplasts, chlorophylls
(c) Carotenoids, chlorophyll A, chlorophyll B  (d) Chromoplasts, chlorophyll A, chlorophyll B. 
102.  Pinopsida is otherwise known as ___________________________ 
          (a)  Ginkgopsida  (b)  Coniferopsida,  (c)  Gnetopsida   (d)  Cycadopsida 
103.  Dioecious plants are plants with_____________________ 
          (a)  separate male and female flowers   (b)  separate male and female plants 
          (c)  separate sepals and petals   (d)  separate microspores and megaspores 
104.  _________________ is the persisting body in spermatophytes. 
          (a)  Gametophyte    (b)  Pteriodphyte   (c)  sporophyte   (d)  Bryophyte 
105.  The flowering plant is a division of spermatophyte known as________________ 
(a)  Magnoliopsida   (b)  Gymnospermopsida   (c)  Cycadopsida  (d)  Gnetopsida
106.  The only species of Ginkgos is __________________________  
(a)  Ginkgo beloba     (b)  Ginkgo biloba   (c)  Ginkgo balba   (d)  Ginkgo bilobi 
107.  Pollination in gymnosperms is by ___________________  
          (a)  birds   (b)  animals   (c)  wind   (d)  water 
108.  Male Ginkgos are planted because the females have __________________ 
          (a)  poor growth   (b)  dull cones  (c)  nasty odour   (d)  too long leaves 
109.  Which of these is not true of algae? 
(a)  They are thalloid  (b)  They contain chlorophyll  (c)  They  contain vascular tissues 
(d)  They are lower plants
110.  The study of algae is known as:  
          (a)  Algology or Phycology   (b)  Mycology or Physiology 
(c)  Anatomy or histology      (d) Pathology of Phycobiont 

111.  Algae can exist in all these forms except
(a)  Unicellular   (b)  Colonial   (c)  Multicellular  (d)  None of the above 
112.  An anchorage device Present in algae is know as
(a)  Root    (b)   Rhizinae   (c)  Rhizoids   (d)  Rhizophere 
113.  Paramylum is a polysaccharide found in algae related to
(a)  glucose   (b)  starch    (c)  cellulose    (d)  Glycogen 
114.  Chrysolaminarin is a complex carbohydrate found in a group of 
(a)  Green algae  (b)  Brown algae  (c)  Blue green algae   (d)  Red algae.
115.  All these are examples of flagellate unicells except 
(a)  Dunaliella   (b)  Phacotus   (c)  Chlamydomonas  (d)  Tetragnium 
116.  Gonium is a type of algae with
(a)  Plate-like colony   (b)  Spherical shape   (c)  Plates of cells  (d)  None of the above.
117.  The fungal component of a lichen is best described as
(a)  Phycobiont   (b)  Mycobiont   (c)  fungi   (d)  Algae
118.  A group of lichen without an organized structure is known as  
(a)  Foliose    (b)  Leprose   (c)  fructicose   (d)  crustose 
119.  A type of lichen structure which is much branched and can either be upright or hanging down is known as
          (a)  crustose    (b)   foliose   (c)  fruticose   (d)  Lepros 
120.  The study of fungi is termed:  
(a)  funcology      (b)  ecology     (c)  mycology    (d)  phycology 
121.  Fungi are classified into how many classes? 
(a)  8    (b)   3    (c)   6     (d)   4 
122.  A fungus comprising a naked slimy mass of protoplasm containing numerous nuclei is better called
          (a)  spore mass   (b)  mycelium   (c)  plasmodium   (d)  amoeboid 
123.  When a fungal mycelium is sparated into individual cells by cross walls, the fungus is said to be  
          (a)  aseptate    (b)  septate    (c)  cross walled    (d)  coenocytic
124.  The dimensions of a fungal mycelium are not fixed and may be affected by
(a)  temperature   (b)  nutrients   (c)  aeration   (d)  none of the above 
125.  Specialized propagative bodies made up of one or a few cells are called  
(a)  spores    (b)  ciliospores   (c)  asci   (d)  pycnidia 
126.  When terminal or intercalary cells cut off and round up, they form  
          (a)  hectospores   (b)  teliospores   (c)  chlamydospores  (d) aneurospores 
127.  Flagellatd spores are also called  
          (a)  sporangia   (b)  zoospores   (c)  phialides    (d)  None
128.  Asexual spores produced by the cutting off of cells from special hypha are called
          (a)  conidiospores   (b)  conidia   (c)  idiospores   (d)  spermatia 
129.  In the class Ascomycetes the ascospores are usually produced in what number? 
          (a)  4   (b)  6   (c)  8   (d)  10 
130.  In the class Basidiomycetes, the spores are called ________________ and are usually____________________ in number?
          (a)  basidium; 8   (b)  biospores;  4   (c)  phycospores; 4  (d)  basidiospors; 4 
131.  A dikaryotic cell is most likely to have how many nuclei?
          (a)  3    (b)   2   (c)   4    (d)  numerous
132.  Fungi generally lack chlorophyll and are therefore
          (a)  autotrophs   (b)  scarengers   (c)  heterotrophs   (d)  idiotrophs 
133.  The fungi imperfecti group is so called because
          (a)  members are deformed  (b)  members are unrelated  (c)  members lack sexuality  (d)  members die out
134.  Mushrooms and toadstools are differentiated based on
          (a)  classification   (b)  habitat   (c)  edibility   (d)  life cycle
135.  Between Amanita and Agaricus species the difference lies in the presence of
          ________________ in which of them?
          (a)  stipe in Amanita   (b)  volva in Agaricus  (c)  volva in Amanita
          (d)  annulus in Agaricus
136.  In mushrooms, the fruiting body growing upward above ground is called
          (a)  basidium   (b)  ascocarp   (c)  basidiocarp  (d)  fertile body
137.  All members of the Kingdom fungi reproduce both sexually and asexually
          (a)  True   (b)  false   (c)  True and False   (d)  None
138.  Most mushrooms are basidiomycetes that produce haploid basidiospores in sacs under the mushroom cap       (a)  True    (b)  False
139.  Asci in Ascomycetes and basidiospores in Basidiomycetes perform the same function   (a)  True  (b)  False   (c) None of the above  (d) all of the above


140.  Conidia are reproductive cells that function during the asexual life cycles of Ascomycetes and imperfect fungi
          (a)  True   (b)  False   (c)  True and False   (d)  None of the above
141.  Basidiospores are ______________ cells that germinate to directly form _______________.
          (a)  haploid; mycelia  (b)  haploid; asci   (c)  diploid; basidia   (d)  diploid; mushrooms
142.  Asexual life cycle in fungi is likely to be completed
          (a)  once a season   (b)  twice in a season   (c)  several times  (d) none of the above
143.  When two fertilized nuclei remain together in pairs within the cell without actually fusing the
cell is called
          (a)  a eucaryon   (b)  a dikaryon   (c)  germtube   (d) zygote
144.  The role of fungi in mycorrhizal association is to
          (a)  produce necessary nutrient   (b)  increase absorptive surface for plant roots
          (c)  decompose    (d)  synthesize antibiotics
145.     The first person to observe microorganisms with a simple microscope is
(a)Robert Hook   (b) Antony van Leeuwenhoek  (c) Robert Einsten  (d) John Newton
 146.    The theory of Abiogenesis believes that
(a)Life starts from non-living thing  (b) Life starts from air  (c)  Life starts from food
(d) There is no life at all
147.    The theory of Abiogenesis was disproved by an experiment performed by -------------
(a)Antony van Leeuwenhoek  (b) Robert Hook  (c) Louis Pasteur  (d) John Newton
148.     The following constitute bacteria morphology except
(a)The size  (b) The shape  (c)  The arrangement  (d)  None of the above
149.     The following structural parts are common to all bacteria except;
(a)Flagella  (b) Pili  (c)  Cell wall  (d)  A & b
150.     Which of the following is incorrect?
(a)The pili of bacteria can be observed by using light microscope
(b)            The presence of flagella in bacteria can be deduced from motility test
(c)Motility test cannot be used to deduce the presence of pili
(d)            Both a & b are incorrect
151.      Protoplasm refers to;
(a)Bacterium that has lost its cell wall   (b) Bacterium that has lost its plasma membrane
(c) Bacterium that has lost its flagella  (d) Bacterium that has lost its pili
152.      All these are arrangements of flagella in bacteria except
(e)Monotrichous  (b) Polytrichous  (c) Lophotrichous  (d) Amphitrichous
153.     Which of the following is/are correct?
(a)Pili are straighter and thinner than flagella  (b) Flagella are shorter and thinner than pili
(c) Pili is a locomotory organelle  (d)  a, b and c are correct
154.     Pili can be used for the following except;
(a)Conjugation   (b) Adherence to surfaces   (c) Motility   (d) Attachment to specific receptors on cell surface
155.     Which of the following is not true for bacteria capsule?
(a)They are jelly-like substances      (b) They are found on the surface of bacteria
(c)  They help bacteria to cause disease  (d)  They are found in all bacteria
156.      The following are true about bacteria size except
(a)The unit of measurement of bacteria size is milimeter
(b)            The unit of measurement of bacteria size is the nanometer
(c)Bacteria vary in size
(d)            Bacteria are the same in size
157.      Acid-fast bacteria are stained using
(a)Gram staining technique  (b) Spore staining technique
(c) Ziehl-Neelsen staining technique  (d) Capsular staining technique
 158.     Bacteria that appear in clusters are known as
(a)Diplococci  (b) Streptococci  (c) Streptobacilli  (d)  Staphylococci
159.      Which of the following is/are true of viruses?
(a)They are obligate intracellular parasites  (b) They posses both DNA and RNA
(c) They can only replicate outside a living cell   (d) a, b and c are correct
160.      The nucleic acid plus capsid of a virion is known as;
(a)Nucleocapsid   (b) Nucleoid   (c) Genome  (d) Capsomer
161.      The capsomers are attached to one another by --------------- bonds
(a)Dative    (b)  Non-covalent  (c)  Hydrogen  (d) Electrovalent
162.      Viruses acquire their envelope as
(a)They infect a host cell   (b) They replicate inside a cell
(c) They bud through the host cell membrane  (d) They synthesize the different proteins
163.      The envelope of viruses is made up of
(a)Lipids and vitamins  (b) Proteins and minerals  (c) Vitamins and minerals
(d) Lipids and proteins
164.     Measles virus is an example of
(e)An enveloped icosahedral virus  (b) An enveloped helical virion
Non-enveloped icosahedral virus  (d) Complex virus
165.  Which of these plant is a conifer?
          (a)  Araucaria    (b)  Ephedra    (c)  Ginkgo    (d)  Gnetum 
166.  Wood of conifers is referred to as __________________  
          (a)  long wood   (b)  short wood    (c)  hard wood   (d)  soft wood 
167.  __________________ has leaves that look like those of angiosperms. 
          (a)  Cycas    (b)   Welwitschia   (c)  Gnetum    (d)  Ginkgo 
168.  __________________ is noted for its two long, prominent leaves. 
          (a)  Pinus    (b)  Cycas     (c)   Zamia    (d)  Welwitschia 
169.  The first angiosperm appear in the fossil record in __________________ deposit. 
(a)  cretaceous    (b)  Mesozoic   (c)  Jurassic   (d)  paleo   
170.  The two integuments in angiosperms are ______________ 
(a)  testa and tecta    (b)   seed coat and seed cover  (c)  testa and tegmen   (d)  harder and softer. 
171.  Angiosperms that shed-off their leaves at a particular season are  called____________ 
(a)  annual plants   (b)  evergreen plants  (c)  deciduous plants  (d)  biennial plants   
 172. Plants that complete their life cycles 4 or 5 times within a growing season are called_________________    (a)  Perennials    (b)  biennials   (c)  annuals   (d)  ephemerals 
173.  The floral parts in dicots occur in ______________________ 
          (a)  4’s or 5’s         (b)  4’s or 6’s      (c)  3’s or 4’s    (d)  2’s or 3’s   
174.  _________________ is the vein system in monocots. 
          (a)  Net work   (b)  Reticulate   (c)  Paralled   (d)  Horizontal
175.  Embryo in monocots has _______________________  
          (a)  one cotyledon    (b)  two cotyledons   (c)  three cotyledons   (d)  four cotyledons 
176.  Root is the _________________________ part of  plant axis.  
          (a)  ascendiasng    (b)  descending    (c)  uprigfht   (d)  prostrate    


177.  Stem is positively  ________________ and negatively __________________  
          (a)  hydrotropic, geotropic   (b)  phototropic,  hydrotropic     
          (c)  galvanotropic,  phototropic   (d)  geotropic, phototropic
178.  These are parts of a leaf except_________________________   
          (a)  blade   (b)  vein   (c)  node   (d)  midrib.       
179.  Leaves grow by means of ________________________    
          (a)  rib metristems   (b)  cork cambium   (c)  marginal meristems (d)  vascular cambium   
180.  The androecium consists mainly__________________  
(a)  anther and style   (b)  stigma and filament  (c)  pollen grains and anther  (d)  filament and anther
181.  In the angiosperms, microspores and megaspores are produced by ________________and    _____________________ respectively.       
(a)  megasporangia and microsporangia   (b)  sporophyte and megasporangia 
(c)  gametophyte and sporophyte   (d)  microsporangia and megasporangia.
182.  Columella is a feature of :
          (a) Moss    (b) hornworts     (c) liverworts      (d) ferns
183.  Which of these has no seta?
          (a) Hornworts     (b) Liverwort      (3) Moss    (d) musci
184.  _________ has an elongated capsule.
          (a) Hornworts     (b) Hepaticae      (c) Mosses (d) Ferns
185.  Spores are released through the valves in
          (a) Hornworts and ferns       (b) Hornworts and Hepaticae  (c) Hornworts and Mosses 
(d) Hepaticae and Mosses
186.  Regeneration in a/an __________ reproduction.
          (a) asexual   (b) vegetative   (c) sexual    (d) none of the above
187.  Pteridophytes originated from:
          (a) algae   (b) fungi   (c)  bryophytes    (d) Algae or Bryophytes      
188.  Which of these is not a division of pteriodophytes?
          (a) Lycopodiophyta   (b) Psilotophyta  (c) Polypodiophyta  (d) Osmundnophyta
189.  Sporangia of water ferns are contained in:
          (a) sporangium   (b) indusium   (c) sporocarps   (d) sorus
190.  Which of these is not a sub class of Polypodiophyta?
          (a) Marattidae   (b) Salvinldae     (c)  Ophioglossidae   (d) Polypodae
191.  Which of these is not associated with spores in pteridophyte?
          (a) Sorus   (b) Sporangium   (c) Capsule   (d) Sporocarp
192.  Algae are differentiated into:
          (a)     leaf   (b) stem     (c) Root     (d) none of the aboe
193.  Algae are autotrophic because they possess:
          (a) chlorophyll   (b) fucoxanthin     (c) floridean     (d) manitol
194.  Which of these organisms contains theca in its body structure?
          (a) Rhyzolekane (b) Chlorella       (c) Characium     (d) Tetragonium 
195.  An example of filamentous algal organization is:
          (a) Ulothrix        (b) Botrydium    (c) Volvox (d) Pandorina
196.  The biological association between lichen’ components is best described as:
          (a) parasitism      (b) mutualism     (c) saprophytism      (d) None of the above.
197.  Which of these may not likely be a good habitat for lichens
          (a) Tree trunks   (b) Logs of wood   (c) Rock surface   (d) All of the above
198.  A lichen body with lobed margins is best described as:
          (a) Fruticose       (b) Foliose (c) Leprose          (d) Crustose
199.  The major difference between lichens and other cryptogams is that it is:
          (a) a single organism   (b) a composite organism    (c) an unorganised organism    (d) a lower plant.
200.  Bryophyte is very crucial in the environment because of its:
          (a) small size      (b) cosmopolitan nature   (c) ability as biomonitor  (d)  edibility


S/N
Answer
S/N
Answer
S/N
Answer
S/N
Answer
1
b
51
c
101
c
151
a
2
c
52
c
102
b
152
b
3
b
53
d
103
b
153
a
4
c
54
d
104
c
154
c
5
b
55
b
105
a
155
d
6
b
56
a
106
b
156
c
7
a
57
c
107
c
157
c
8
c
58
d
108
c
158
d
9
b
59
d
109
c
159
a
10
a
60
a
110
a
160
a
11
b
61
a
111
d
161
b
12
c
62
b
112
c
162
c
13
b
63
a
113
b
163
d
14
b
64
c
114
b
164
b
15
c
65
d
115
d
165
a
16
c
66
c
116
a
166
c
17
c
67
c
117
b
167
c
18
b
68
d
118
b
168
d
19
d
69
a
119
c
169
c
20
c
70
a
120
c
170
c
21
b
71
b
121
d
171
c
22
a
72
c
122
c
172
d
23
d
73
d
123
b
173
a
24
b
74
b
124
b
174
c
25
c
75
d
125
a
175
a
26
b
76
c
126
c
176
b
27
c
77
a
127
b
177
b
28
b
78
d
128
b
178
c
29
b
79
d
129
c
179
c
30
d
80
a
130
d
180
d
31
d
81
c
131
b
181
d
32
a
82
a
132
c
182
a
33
a
83
d
133
c
183
a
34
d
84
b
134
c
184
c
35
d
85
a
135
c
185
b
36
a
86
c
136
c
186
b
37
d
87
b
137
b
187
d
38
a
88
b
138
a
188
d
39
a
89
a
139
b
189
c
40
d
90
c
140
a
190
d
41
a
91
b
141
b
191
c
42
b
92
b
142
c
192
d
43
b
93
c
143
b
193
a
44
d
94
d
144
b
194
a
45
a
95
b
145
b
195
a
46
b
96
c
146
a
196
b
47
d
97
a
147
c
197
d
48
d
98
b
148
d
198
b
49
a
99
D
149
d
199
b
50
c
100
B
150
a
200
c


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